Broken Hill The Silver Trail Local Drive

The Broken Hill Heritage Drive is available as a Happee Trails ebook guide to download and starts at the Broken Hill Visitor Information Centre. It is about 40 kilometres long and can be completed in 2 to 3 hours excepting stops for museum or galleries.

It is divided into two parts -Trail Numbers 1 to 65 cover the main residential and commercial areas of Central and North Broken Hill. The second part comprising Trail Numbers 66 to 118 starts on the Menindee Road and includes the line of lode from the old North Mine to South Broken Hill and Railwaytown. The Trail gives visitors an understanding and appreciation of the history and development of Broken Hill by highlighting the city’s rich and unique heritage of major buildings, residential areas and mines.

The drive can be shortened if required by eliminating the central commercial area and the central line of lode – this can be done by leaving the Visitor Information Centre and proceeding north up Bromide Street until reaching Trail Number 26 just before Wolfram Street. Another shortcut leaves out the residential area.

Note that many of the buildings featured in this book are privately owned.
Please respect the privacy of the owners.
Follow the distinctive Trail signs and use the fold out map at the end of this booklet to guide you.

1. Kintore Reserve

This reserve is located on the route of the Silverton Railway which closed in 1970. The wooden headframe was relocated from the Kintore Shaft at the Central Mine in 1984 to make way for open cut mining activities. The shaft was named after the Earl of Kin tore, the first chairman of the Central Mine. The reserve also has large sculptures by Broken Hill artist, Pro Hart.

Drive along Blende Street, turn left into Kaolin Street and left into Argent Street

2. Duke of Cornwall Hotel – 1888

The original 1886 wooden hotel on this site was destroyed by fire in 1887. It was rebuilt in 1888 for Barnett Harris as a two storey stone and brick structure incorporating the current. balcony. Edward Aldridge occupied the hotel between 1889 and 1909, and added a garden, museum and zoo.

3. Daydream Hotel – 1888

Erected as the Sydney Club Hotel in 1888 with Michael Byrom as licensee, it was renamed the Daydream Hotel in 1980.

4. Barrier Boarding House – 1888

Erected in 1888 by Frederick Reimers as the Barrier Club Hotel, it was delicensed in 1924 and is the only remaining former hotel in Broken Hill made of iron.

5. Shops – c1890

A row of five substantially intact shop frontages with original verandah and case iron poses.

The trail continues along Argent Street, Broken Hill’s main commercial area. Buildings in this area are covered by the Heritage Walk. Most notable is the civic group on the left between Sulphide and Chloride streets.

6. Willyama Hotel – 1905

The first Willyama Hotel, an iron and timber structure, was built on chis site in 1887 for Philip Harvey. It was destroyed by fire
in 1905 and rebuilt in brick and stone. The building was extensively remodelled in the 1960s.

Turn right along Iodide Street across the railway track and look left

7. Old Railway Station – 1919

Built in 1919 by the NSW Government for their standard gauge service from Broken Hill to Menindee. Broken Hill was linked by rail with Sydney in 1927, but passengers had co cross to the Sulphide Street Station to continue their journey westwards via Silverton until the standard gauge link with South Australia was completed in 1969 and Silverton was by-passed.

Turn first right and follow Trail Numbers 8-13 on the map on the line of lode

8. BHP Chimney – 1885

This stone chimney marks the site of the hut built by the Broken Hill Mining Company (soon to become BHP) in May 1885 to house its first manager, William Jamieson. It was later used as the office and as such, the site marks the origin of the Big Australian which has helped shape Australia’s mining and industrial legacy.

9. BHP Slag Heap – 1886

This black slag heap is the waste product of the BHP smelters which were established here in 1886. This smelter produced silver-lead bullion from carbonate ore using limestone and ironstone as flux in water-jacketed blast furnaces. BHP erected a second smelter to the south in 1888 and established smelting and a silver-lead refinery at Port Pirie, South Australia in 1891. BHP ceased smelting at Broken Hill in 1898.

10. BHP Mill Foundations – 1897

The stone foundations are the remains of BHP’s concentration mills erected in 1894-1897. BHP’s first concentration mill was erected on the east side of the lode in 1889, but it was closed due to subsidence. A gravity mill with a capacity of 10,000 tons of ore per week was erected here in 1897 to produce a high-grade lead product while millions of tons of zinc-rich tailings were dumped. In 1904, the flotation process was added to the plant. It operated until 1927 and was demolished in 1940.

11. Delprat Shaft – 1900

This shaft was sunk in 1900 and was named after BHP general manager, GD Delprat. In 1952, the original wooden headframe was replaced by the present steel structure and an electric winder replaced a steam engine. The shaft was closed to mining by the time Minerals, Mining and Metallurgy Ltd (MMM) ceased underground operations in 1976. It was used as a tourist mine from 1977 until its closure in 2007 due to nearby remnant mining operations by CBH Resources.

12. Mullockers Memory

This memorial was dedicated on 8 October 2002 commemorating the lives of Thomas Jordon, 19, and Leopold Campbell, 21, whose bodies remain 500 feet below the memorial. They died as the result of a fall of rock in October 1902. Vintage trucks filled with mullock are displayed with a poem by Alwyn Edelman reminding the observer of the dangers of the mine.

13. Line of Lode Miners’ Memorial and Visitors’ Centre

The Miners’ Memorial and Visitors’ Centre were completed in December 2000 and awarded the Walter Burley Griffin Award for Urban Design by the Royal Australian Institute of Architects in 2001 – the highest award in Australia for an Urban Design project. The structure by architects Chris Landorf and David Manfredi provides a symbolic and spiritual representation of the tragedy of more than 800 deaths from mining accidents at Broken Hill. The site on the edge of the tailings is a dramatic lookout with an excellent view over the city to the northwest.

Retrace your direction down the hill, turn left back across the railway line, and turn first left into Crystal Street. Continue along Crystal Street for Trail Numbers 14-19

14. Former Crown Hotel – c1890

The first hotel of timber and iron was erected on this site in 1887 with Eugene Grandjean as licensee. It was rebuilt in brick and stone cl890. The current verandah was built in 1995 as part of the Verandah Restoration Program.

15. Former Wilcannia Club Hotel – 1888

The hotel was erected by Joseph Murphy in 1888 and ceased trading as a hotel in 1971.

16. Railway Station – 1969

The present railway station was opened in 1969 by Prime Minister John Gorton when the standard gauge line was completed to South Australia. This brought to an end Broken Hill’s reliance on its unique private railway – the Silverton Tramway Company. Transshipping yards established beside Crystal Street in 1942 to bridge the break of gauge were abandoned in 1969.

17. Bond Store – 1890

This was built in 1890 as offices and bond store for the SA Brewing Company. It was later acquired by Seppelt and Sons and used as a warehouse until 1973. The verandah was reconstructed in 1990 based on early photographs and now houses the Geocentre, an interpretive centre for the minerals and geology of Broken Hill.

18. Former Crystal Hotel 90-92 Crystal Street – 1888

This former hotel was erected in 1888 with Charles Fisher as first licensee. Fisher was killed by a rock in 1889 thrown by a patron who had been ejected from the hotel. The hotel was delicensed in 1924 and converted for residential use.

19. Former Miners Arms Hotel – c1890

The original timber and iron hotel was opened in 1888 with William Matthews as licensee. It was rebuilt in brick and stone cl 890. The hotel was delicensed in 1924 and became a private hospital. The verandah was reconstructed as part of the Verandah Restoration Program in 1992. Turn right from Crystal Street into Garnet Street

20. Duke of Cornwall Park

This reserve was named after the nearby hotel which honours the first-born son of British monarchs and Broken Hill’s rich Cornish heritage. The City Council began.developing the reserve as a recreation park cl 915. This work was later taken over by the Zinc Corporation. The early photo below shows the view from nearby Billygoat Hill with the park on the left.

21. Central School – 1907

The first Government school at Broken Hill was established in 1886 in a temporary wood and iron building on this site. The first teacher was Jeremiah Boyle – 191 students enrolled in 1887. The building seen today was erected in 1907 as an infant’s school and now forms part of the High School.

Proceed up Garnet Street and turn left into Beryl ‘Street, then turn first right into Gossan Street

22. Gaol – 1891

The gaol was erected by James Dobbie in 1891 and opened in 1892. The only execution took place in 1907 when Peter Sadeek was hanged for murder. Australia’s entire gold reserves were housed here between 1942 and 1945 in a specially constructed vault as a precaution against Japanese invasion.

From Gossan Street, turn right into Wolfram Street

23. High School – 1919

A new high school building was erected adjacent to the Central School buildings in 1919. It took over the Central School (primary and infants) buildings in 1965 when a new primary school was erected in Mica Street.

24. Former Police Barracks – 1900

This building was erected in 1900 as police residential quarters and now forms part of the High School.

From Wolfram Street, turn right into Kaolin Street

25. Central School Building -1900

This two storey brick building was erected in 1900 as part of the Central School. It was occupied by the Broken Hill District School from 1909 until erection of a new high school in 1919 of which it is now part.

Turn left into Cobalt Street, then turn left into Bromide Street

26. Pig and Whistle Hotel – 1890

A timber and iron hotel was opened on this site in 1888 with William Carter as licensee. It was rebuilt in stone by W H Newton in 1890.

Turn right into Wolfram and go half the block

27. Synagogue – 1910

A Hebrew congregation was formed in Broken Hill in 1900 when there were about 150 Jews residing in the city. The synagogue and attached residence were erected in 1910 and consecrated by Rabbi F K Cohen in 1911. It closed in 1962 and was used as a residence until 1989 when purchased by the Broken Hill Historical Society and restored for its headquarters. Original furniture survives and the original ceiling with the Star of David has been retained.

Return back to Bromide Street, turn right, turn left into Lane Street, and left at the top of the hill into the Joe Keenan Lookout

28. Joe Keenan Lookout

This lookout provides an excellent panoramic view of Broken Hill and the line of lode. It was named in honour of Peter Joseph Keenan, President of the Barrier Industrial Council from 1969 to 1985,  and city Alderman from 1953 to 1962. Adjacent is the Mica Street filtration plant which still retains the original stone reservoir built in 1894 to take water pumped from the Stephens Creek Reservoir.

Return to Bromide Street, turn left, then right at Chapple Street, and first left into Sulphide Street

29. Sulphide Street Cottages – c1900

This row of five simple, single­fronted cottages was built in about 1900. They are constructed of corrugated iron with return verandahs and are generally intact.

30. Hospital – 1941

The first Broken Hill hospital was a wooden structure with six beds erected in 1887 at the site of the present gaol for £260. In 1888, 128 deaths were recorded from typhoid in a three month period and the construction of a new hospital became urgent. A stone complex was erected on this site by R Honey for £3,566 and opened by Sir Henry Parkes in June 1889. Sections of this early hospital complex remain. A new section of the hospital was erected between 1939 and 1941 at a cost of £250,000 and was the first fully air-conditioned hospital in NSW It was not suitable for later adaptation and was demolished in 1998 to make way for the new hospital which was completed in 2000. The design using corrugated iron and masonry is a sympathetic response to the Broken Hill context.

Turn left on Thomas Street and drive until Kaolin Street

31. Thomas Street Uniting Church – 1911

This iron and timber building was erected as the Picton Methodist Church in Kaolin Street and moved to this site in 1911. The adjacent hall was moved from Blende Street Methodist Church when it closed in 1926.

Turn right up Kaolin Street, and drive to the edge of town. Stop at the junction of Schlapp Street to take in the expansive reserve

32. Regeneration Reserve

Dust storms were a major problem in Broken Hill’s early years after timber was stripped from the landscape for use on the mines. Albert Morris, the chief assayer for the Central Mine in Broken Hill, became interested in the plants of the outback and developed the idea for a green belt to control sand drift. This concept, first adopted by Zinc Corporation Ltd in 1936, was such a success that within 18 months, North Broken Hill and Broken Hill South followed the example. Known as the “father” of Broken Hill’s Regeneration Scheme, Morris helped to found the Barrier Field Naturalists’ Club and served as its secretary until his death in 1939. Plants that have regenerated well include mulga, eremophilae, cassia and hop bushes.

Drive to the end of Schlapp Street

33. White Rocks Reserve

This Reserve contains a milky quartz outcrop which was the site of a small arms exchange known as “The Battle of Broken Hill”. It was the only battle of World War I fought on Australian soil and resulted in the death of the two ambushers. The incident occurred on 1 January 1915 when two Afghan i1nnligrants, ice cream vendor Goo! Mohammed and camel driver Mulla Abdulla ambushed a train carrying civilians en route to an annual picnic in nearby Silverton. Being Muslims, both men had sworn allegiance to the Sultan of Turkey and considered themselves at war with Australia. After the ambush, which took place at Trail No. 107 and claimed four lives, the men retreated to this nearby hill called White Rocks where they were Jailed by police and volunteer military forces after a three-hour gun battle. A replica ice cream cart now stands at the site of the shoot-out.

Turn around, take first left on Bromide Street, then drive to Cummins Street, turn left until the block between Chloride and Oxide Street

34. Cummins Street Residences – c1890

This street contains a collection of high quality Victorian residences. Most are constructed of stone, but several are of corrugated iron and timber. A number have fine cast iron decoration.

Continue along Cummins Street to Iodide Street, turn right, drive four blocks, then right along Thomas Street

35. Thomas Street Residences – c1890

On the high side of Thomas Street are several prominent stone residences, some of which incorporate basements.

36. Tydvil Hotel – 1891

This was opened in 1891 by owner Rees Coventry Rees. It was named the Merthyr Tydvil Hotel by Rees after a mining town in his native Wales.

Turn left into Oxide Street

37. Mulga Hill Hotel – 1890

An iron and timber hotel was erected on this site in 1888 with William Claringbold as licensee. It was named after a nearby hill which was excavated for a tramway line in 1903. The hotel was rebuilt in brick and stone in 1890 and has been heavily altered including a riled roof.

Shortcut – the trail can be shortened by proceeding to ‘Trail Number 57, missing out part of the residential area and church group of Central Broken Hill. Turn left into Williams Street and drive to Zebrina Street

38. Oxide Street Row Cottages – c1890

A group of stone row cottages with iron roofs and consistent verandahs much were erected together – a housing style used widely in early Australia cities but unusual for Broken Hill.

Turn right at Lane Street

39. St Andrews Uniting Church – 1905

This was erected in 1905 as a Presbyterian Church and became a Uniting Church in 1977.

40. St Peters Anglican Church – 1928

The first Anglican services were conducted in the Bijou Theatre in Oxide Street in 1886. The first Anglican church was erected on this site in 1888. The church was rebuilt after storm damage in 1928. It was opened in May 1928 by the Governor of NSW, Sir Dudley de Chair.

41. Former Caledonian Hotel – 1898

Erected by Alexander Marshall, chis typical corner pub had its verandah repaired as pare of the Verandah Restoration Program in 1996. The Lodge opposite was erected as a doctor’s residence c1905.

42. Catholic Bishop’s Residence – 1887

This was erected as the Bishop’s residence and presbytery. The Very Rev.John Dunne was appointed Broken Hill’s first Catholic Bishop in 1887, a position he held until 1916.

43. Sacred Heart Cathedral and adjacent Convent – 1905 and 1900

This substantial stone cathedral was built by J Power and dedicated by Bishop Dunne in 1905. It replaced an iron and timber structure which had been erected in 1887. The adjacent convent complex was opened in 1900 by Archbishop 0’Reilly of Adelaide. The convent was purchased by the Church of Christ in 1982. The adjacent school was established originally as a convent school run by the Sisters of Mercy in 1889 and by 1892 included secondary education. The present school building was erected in 1912 and now houses the Sacred Heart Secondary College.

44. Sacred Heart College -1927

This was erected as Marist Brothers College for boys in 1927. In 1973, Marist Brothers and nearby St Josephs combined to form the co­educational Sc Josephs High School. The Marist Brothers left Broken Hill in 1987 and the school was renamed Sacred Heart College and is open to students of all ages.

Turn left into Sulphide Street and drive one block

45. The Towers – c1890

This unusual stone residence with castellations and tower was erected as Nurse Robertson’s private hospital in about 1890 and retains its original configuration when compared with the early photograph.

Continue along Sulphide Street and look right

46. Wesley Church – 1888

Erected in 1888 by the Wesleyans, the foundation stone was laid by Mrs Charles Drew of Burra. It was erected by Walter and Morris of Port Adelaide using local stone and brick, and can seat 650 people. The church retains an original interior with a reconstructed original colour scheme.

47. Sturt Park

This park was gazetted as Central Reserve in 1895 and was the hub of considerable social activity during Broken Hill’s early years. It was renamed Sturt Park in 1944 to commemorate the centenary of the inland explorations of Captain Charles Sturt. lt contains a fine rotunda. There is also a memorial to the bandsmen on the steamship Titanic who continued to play as the ship went down on its maiden voyage on 14 April 1912 and 1,517 people drowned. A water fountain and rose garden near the rotunda are monuments to Prime Minister John Curtin.

Turn left into Blende Street and drive one block

48. Trades Hall – 1898/1904

Trade unionism developed as a powerful force in Broken Hill partly due to the nature of the mining industry, the working conditions and the isolation of the city. The Amalgamated Miners’ Association was formed in 1886 with the motto “United We Stand, Divided We Fall”. The construction of Trades Hall commenced in 1898 with the second storey meeting rooms and a large hall with vast pressed iron ceilings added in 1904. The interior of the building was restored in 1988, reinstating the original elaborate detailing of the main hall which is typical of the late Victorian period. It is open for public inspection during working hours. The Barrier Industrial Council was established in 1923 to represent all local unions. The history of Broken Hill was marked with bitter and protracted strikes, particularly in 1892, 1909 and 1919 and this building was the focal point of these strikes. The 1919 strike lasted 18 months and led to the 35 hour week for miners and improved health and safety conditions.

Turn left into Chloride Street

49. YMCA – cl890

Erected originally as the German Club in about 1890, this building was purchased by the YMCA in 1908. The foundation for the adjacent gymnasium was laid by C J Emery in 1906.

Turn right into Cobalt Street

50. Miners Lamp Motel – 1888

Erected in 1888 as the Southern Cross Hotel with James Nicol as the first licensee, this hotel was a stage coach terminus like many others. The verandah was reconstructed in 1999 as part of the Verandah Restoration Program.

51. Imperial Hotel – 1888

A substantial hotel erected in 1888 with William Fanner as the first licensee. The building incorporates high quality woodwork and cast iron lacework decoration. The hotel was delicensed in 1989.

Turn left into Oxide Street

52. Scout Hall – 1900

Erected in 1900 as a hall for the Barrier Boys Brigade, the foundation stone was laid by G D Delprat, general manager of BHP The brigade was formed in 1898 with Captain John Warren of Block 10 Mine as president, but was disbanded in 1930 and the hall was taken over by the Boy Scouts.

53. Old Royal Hotel – 1904

This two storey hotel building with single storey billiard room at the side was erected in 1904 for £1,500. It replaced an original iron and timber hotel erected in 1889 with Thomas Pearson as licensee. The billiard room was converted into a lounge in 1969. A verandah was reconstructed in 1995 as part of Broken Hill City Council’s Verandah Restoration Program.

Turn right at the Old Royal and go one block, turn left into Iodide Street

54. Iodide Street Row Cottages – cl890

An early group of stone row cottages.

55. Wades Shop – cl890

On the corner of Lane Street is a typical local shop of the Victorian period, built of stone with simple brick pediment and iron verandah.

Continue along Iodide Street, turn right at Chapple Street

56. Baptist Church – 1917

This cement brick church was erected in 1917 and replaced the original Baptist Church in Beryl Street.

Continue along Chapple Street and turn left into Zebina Street

57. Shop and Residence – cl890

A typical corrugated iron local shop with attached residence and post-supported verandah.

Turn right into Williams Street

58. Williams Street Residences – cl890

A number of fine stone residences occur along Williams Street between Brazil and McCulloch streets.

Continue along Williams Street until Buck Street. Look for the date palm trees

59. Mosque – 1891

This simple wood and iron structure is the only surviving Muslim mosque in Australia. It was built in the late 1880s on the site of the former camp where Afghan and Indian camel drivers once unloaded their camel teams. These camel teams carried heavy loads across the hot dry landscape until the 1920s when replaced by motor transport. There are descendants of the early Muslim families still living in Broken Hill. The Mosque was restored by the Broken Hill Historical Society and rededicated in 1968. The building consists of an anteroom and the prayer room and the concrete channel near the entrance door was used for wudu (washing ritual) by the faithful before entering the Mosque.

Turn right into Buck Street, right into Chapple Street and left into McCulloch Street

60. North Primary School – 1902

The original North Broken Hill school building was erected in 1889 and opened in 1890 with Farquhar Wallace as the first teacher. A new Federation-style building was opened by the Premier of NSW in 1902. A primary school fronting McCulloch Street was added in 1910.

Continue down McCulloch Street and turn right into Lane Street

61. School of the Air – 1956

The School of the Air was established in Broken Hill by the NSW Education Department in 1956. Mrs Phyllis Gibb was the first teacher in NSW to broadcast lessons to outback children via the Royal Flying Doctor radio network. (Note – visits must be booked with the Broken Hill Visitor Information Centre)

Turn back to McCulloch Street and turn right

62. Former North Police Station – c1890

The North Broken Hill Police Station was erected in about 1890 and closed in 1979.

Continue down McCulloch Street, turn left into Beryl Street

63. South Australian Brewery – 1893

Five breweries originally operated in Broken Hill – Waverly (1888), West End (1889), SA Brewing Co. (1893), Burtons (1893) and Shelleys (1895). This brewery was erected in 1893 and was the last brewery co close in 1926 when it was converted to a distribution centre. The complex consists of a stone brewing tower (which has since been reduced in height) and two large basement fermentation areas below a large stone bottling and storage building. It has been adapted for use as Thankakali Aboriginal Corporation.

Continue along Beryl Street, turn right at Jabez Street, then right into Argent Street

64. North Mine

Look east from Argent Street. This area was pegged as Block 17 in 1883 and sold to the Broken Hill North Silver Mining Co. in 1885. During its early years, the mine had difficulties in treating sulphide ore and the first dividend was not paid until 1899. The North Mine joined Zinc Corporation and NBHC in Pasminco Ltd in 1988. The headframe in view is No. 2 Shaft and was commenced {n 1928. It is constructed of rivetted steel and was used for the hauling of two cages and two skips. The adjacent concentration mill was commenced in 1939. No. 3 Shaft (left) was commenced in 1948 and commissioned in 1962 – the depth of the shaft is 1600 metres. Photos below are the view from Trail Number 68. Current view left shows No. 3 Shaft (left) and No. 2 Shaft is in the foreground of the early photograph.

Continue along Argent Street, to the corner of Bagot Street

65. Junction Hotel – 1892

Named after the nearby Junction Mine (Trail Number 68), this scone and brick hotel was opened in 1892 with James Hurtle Cummins as first licensee.

Turn left off Argent Street onto the Menindee Road

66. Junction Circle – 1950

This housing was erected in 1950 by North Broken Hill Ltd for salaried staff during a major development program. The houses are positioned around the circular road.

Look across Menindee Road

67. Thompson Shaft – 1910

This site was part of the British Mine and was the main producing area after 1910. The British BHP Co. Ltd, established in London in 1887 to work Blocks 15 and 16, sunk seven shafts (including Thompson Shaft) along the line of lode. An 825 metre aerial tramway was erected in 1906 co convey ore from Marsh and Thompson shafts to the concentration mill to the southwest. The mine was sold to North Broken Hill Lid in 1923 and reworked from Thompson Shaft until 1958. The headframe was erected in 1910 and the adjacent crushing plant and ore bin were erected about 1936. The early photo shows Thompson Shaft to the left.

Turn left into dead end access road

68. Junction Mine and Lookout

This lease was pegged in 1884 and the Broken Hill junction Silver Mining Co. was formed in 1886. Ore to the value of £1.2 million was produced until closure of the mine in 1923. The wooden headframe, the oldest remaining on the line of lode, was erected over Browne Shaft in the 1890s and has been modified several times. The mine was reworked by North Broken Hill Ltd between 1 946 and 1962, and by Broken Hill South Ltd until 1972. Surviving structures include the concentration mill (1897), winding engine (1946), compressor house (1918), manager’s residence (c1916) and ore bin ( cl 946). A four kilometre tunnel was driven at the 451 metre level in Browne Shaft co No. 7 Shaft at South Mine during 1962-63.

69. Junction Mine manager’s residence – c1916

An early masonry Broken Hill mine manager’s residence with verandah.

Continue along Menindee Road, turn right into Holten Drive

70. MMM Dumps

The waste dumps are from the mining of low grade remnant ore from the open cut operations of Minerals, Mining and Metallurgy Ltd (MMM) which took over the leases of Broken Hill South Ltd in 1972. The Kintore pit extended across Blocks 9, 10 and 11, the Blackwood pit was on the old British Mine and there was a smaller pit in Block 14.

Continue along Holten Drive which becomes Eyre Street

71. All Nations Hotel – 1891

This was opened in 1891 with Thomas O’Mara as licensee. The name is probably derived from the ethnic diversity of the hotel’s patrons. The hotel was famous for its two-up school outside its doors during the 1920s. The hotel included a large function hall (demolished in 1958) and a tennis court at the rear.

Continue along Eyre Street

72. Assay Office – c1890

This stone building with brick quoins was erected in cl 890 as the assay office for the Central Mine. It remained in use until the Central Mine closed in 1940.

73. Central Power Station 1930

Two power stations were constructed on this site. Station A was erected in 1930 on the lease of the Central Mine by Western NSW Electric Power Pty Ltd to supply electricity and compressed air to the mines. Between 1947 and 1950, Station B was added which almost doubled the generating capacity. The buildings are constructed of reinforced concrete with the roofs covered by three layers of bituminous felt.

Each building was served by a pair of cranes with a lifting capacity of 22 tons. The electric power was generated by diesel sets and distributed at 6,900 volts, 40 cycle, and 3 phase over conductors carried on steel towers to substations at each mine where it was transformed to 550 volts. The station closed in 1986 when the mines were connected to the NSW electricity grid and all machinery has now been removed. The interior is of cathedral proportions with a large.expanse of early tiled flooring.

Turn left down South Street and left into Piper Street

74. Former Central Mine Manger’s Residence (now St Anne’s Nursing Home)

This substantial residence with encircling verandah was constructed cl 903 as the residence of the Central Mine Manger. It was occupied by Mine Manager James Heb bard, but from cl 940 until cl 984, the residence was the site of St Ann’s Home of Compassion, an Orphanage of the Sisters of Compassion. After a period of uncertainty when the building was proposed for demolition, it was conserved and upgraded in 2007 as part of the St Anne’s Nursing Home complex. The elegant building is today complemented with two storey dormitory wings.

Go back to South Street, turn left, and continue to Hebbard Street

75. Alma Hotel – 1891

This stone and brick hotel was opened in 1891 with John Anderson as the first licensee. Alma is the original name for South Broken Hill, which was named after a battle in the Crimean War of 1854.

Continue on South Street to corner of Patton Street

76. Former Baylyn Hotel -1895

The iron and timber South Broken Hill Hotel was first opened on this site in 1888 with Laban Wake as first licensee. In about 1895, the Hotel was rebuilt in stone and brick and known as Hegarty’s.

Turn right into Patton Street

77. Former South Police Station – 1889

A police station was erected here in 1889 and was used until closure in 1979. The original lock-up cells can still be seen at the rear.

78. South Post Office – 1898

This typical Federation period brick post office was erected in 1898.

79. South Fire Station – c1900

This early 20th Century fire station displays typical detailing of the period.

80. Patton Park

This park was named after William H Patton, an American mining engineer, who was appointed as manager of the BHP Mine in 1887. The park contains an octagonal wooden rotunda and clock arch at the Patton Street entrance.

81. Bells Milk Bar – 1956

Bells Milk Bar commenced as a small timber confectionery store in 1892 and was redeveloped in 1938 to become the first Bells Milk Bar. In 1956, the current facade was constructed and was stylistically ahead of its time for Broken Hill. The building is presented true to period and has a small museum inside.

82. Alma Institute – 1898

Erected in 1898 as a public hall for the citizens of South Broken Hill, this building was restored from 1987 over a three year period from a near ruinous condition. Saved by one councillor’s vote, this was one of the first restoration projects undertaken by the Broken Hill City Council.

Turn back along Patton Street, turn right into South Street

83. Former Salvation Army Hall – 1900

This timber and iron meeting hall was erected in 1900.

Turn right into Morish Street

84. Gladstone Hotel – 1888

This hotel opened in 1888 with Michael Kelly as first licensee. The hotel was delicensed in 1924.

Turn right into Comstock Street

85. South Primary School – 1910

In 1888, South Broken Hill leased a temporary school. This new school was erected in 1889 at a cost of £2,190. An infant school was added in 1910 and is now the oldest remaining building on the site.

86. St James Anglican Church – 1903

The foundation stone of this church was laid by Rev.Anderson in 1903. The adjacent church hall was built in 1919. The church, constructed of stone, was rendered at some later stage.

Turn left into Patton Street

87. South Baptist Church – 1911

This fine stone building was erected in 1911 in the Romanesque style. It was sold for residential purposes in 1974.

Go back to Comstock Street, turn left and continue up to Eyre Street

88. South Mine Offices – c1910

The Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co. was formed in 1884 to work Blocks 7 and 8 on the line of lode. These offices were erected on the mine lease in about 1910. In the background is the South Mine concentration mill erected in 1928. After Broken Hill South Ltd was formed in 1918, the South Mine became one of the most productive mines in Broken Hill, producing 20 million tonnes of ore between 1884 and 1972. Broken Hill South folded in 1972 and closed the South Mine. MMM purchased all of Broken Hill South’s leases and re-opened the mine in 1972. Underground operations ceased in 1976.

Turn left along Bonanza Street and look across to the Zinc Mine

89. Zinc Oval and Zinc Mine

Not accessible to the public The Zinc Corporation was formed in 1905 to treat zinc-rich tailings purchased from other mines. In 1911, it acquired the South Blocks Co. and began underground mining at this end of the line of lode. The steel headframe over the Main Shaft commenced in 1936 as part of a major redevelopment of the Zinc Mine. Main Shaft had an ore hauling capacity of 0. 9 million tonnes per year. Adjacent to the shaft is a circular crushing house, concentration mill and offices that were erected in 1939. These were closed in 1988 when operations were transferred to the NBHC Mine by Pasminco.

Continue along Bonanza Street

90. Former All Saints Catholic Church – 1890

The foundation stone was laid in 1890 by Bishop Dunne and the church opened in 1891. The church is constructed of stone which is now rendered.

91. Union Club Hotel – c1890

This hotel was erected in iron and timber in 1888 with John Whittaker as first licensee. It was later rebuilt in stone and brick.

Turn right down the Wentworth Road

92. Zinc Lakes – 1948

This shallow artificial lake was constructed by Zinc Corporation after World War II as a water reserve for its concentration plant and as a community recreation area. It was opened to the public in 1948 and originally named Twin Lakes. Nearby are the Albert Morris Memorial Gates which were relocated in 1991 to form the entrance to one of Morris’ first successful plantations of red gum. Morris (1886-1939), founder of the Broken Hill Field Naturalists Club, was responsible for the City’s regeneration scheme (see Trail Number 32). The art deco style gates were first erected in 1940 near the Zinc Mine complex.

93. NBHC Mine Housing -c1950

New Broken Hill Consolidated (NBHC) erected housing for salaried staff as part of its development program after 1946.

94. NBHC Mine Haulage and Service Shafts – 1946

Not open to the public – NBHC was formed by the Zinc Corporation in 1936 to develop leases at the end of the lode south of the Zinc Mine. Ore production did not commence until 1945 due to the war. Two large circular concrete and steel-lined shafts were erected in close proximity, one for hauling skips and the other as a service shaft for cages. Haulage Shafi: was refurbished in 1988 by Pasminco Ltd to a capacity of 2.9 million tonnes per year to take ore hauled from both the Zinc and NBHC mines. Pasminco folded in 2001 and the mine has been operated by Perilya since June 2002.

95. Southern Cross Shaft – 1966

This headfiarne, the most modern and technologically advanced on the line of lode, is located over No. 3 Airway Shaft on the southern end of the line of lode. It is constructed of welded steel with two massive hollow steel stays. Work on the 7 .3 metre diameter divided airway began in 1966 and was completed to the 915 metre level in 1974. The shaft’s twin fan system is used today by Perilya to ventilate the southern end of their underground Southern Operations.

Return back along Wentworth Road to Bonanza Street, turn left and continue past Eyre Street

96. South Mine Headframes 1919/1932

The larger and rivetted steel headframe over No. 7 Shaft was completed in 1932 using surplus steel from the Sydney Harbour Bridge. It was the first steel headframe in Broken Hill. No. 7 Shaft has six compartments including two with cages and two with skips. Haulage was made by two double drum electric winders but one winder was removed after 1972. Next to the shaft is
a concrete crushing station. The smaller oregon headframe was erected in 1919 over No. 4 Shaft and the original small electric winding engine survives in a timber and iron building adjacent to the shaft.

Continue up Gypsum Street and turn left into Ryan Street

97. Ryan Street Cottages – 1890

This street contains a variety of styles of early miner’s cottages typical of Broken Hill.

Go back to Gypsum Street and turn left

98. A.J. Keast Park

This park was originally dedicated as Hillside Reserve in 1897. It was renamed in 1940 in honour of Asdruebal James Keast, General Manager of the Zinc Corporation from 1936 to 1946. Keast was responsible for major surface construction and underground development at the Zinc Mine between 1936 and 1939. The Zinc Corporation converted the reserve into a well equipped public recreation area in the 1940s.

99. Hillside Hotel – 1891

This brick and stone hotel was opened in 1891 with Dennis O’ Callaghan as first licensee.

100. Burke Ward Hall – 1905

This large stone public hall was erected for the citizens of Railwaytown in 1905. The foundation stone was laid by Mayor J. Ivey in 1904. The building was restored by Council in 1988.

Turn Right into Wills Street

101. Railwaytown Post Office – 1925

The original Railwaytown Post Office was erected in 1900 opposite the Gasworks Hotel (see Trail No 111). The present brick building was erected adjacent to the Burke Ward Hall in 1925. Together with the hall and the row of verandahed shops on the opposite corner, it provided a service centre for Railwaytown.

Go back to Gypsum Street, turn right, then turn left into Cornish Street

102. Nicholls Street Methodist Church – c1890

This simple, rendered stone church was erected in about 1890 and used until 1959. The adjacent church hall, known as Ivey Hall, was erected in 1920. The Nicholls Street and Mica Street Methodist congregations were amalgan1ated in 1956 and all services transferred to Nicholls Street in 1959 when a new church was opened on the adjacent corner.

103. Cornish Street Lookout

This lookout gives a commanding view of Railwaytown and the southern end of the line of lode. On the horizon can be seen Block 10 Hill, South Mine’s headframes, the old Zinc and NBHC mines and Perilya’s operations.

Continue along Cornish Street, turn right at Creedon Street, and continue to Rakow Street

104. Broken Hill Cemetery – 1889

This cemetery was dedicated in 1889 and replaced the first cemetery in Lane Street. Interpretation signs in the timber shelter explain the development of the cemetery and a leaflet provides information on individual graves of interest (leaflet available either in the leaflet box at the cemetery or at the Visitor Information Centre).

The cemetery contains graves from all periods with a wide variety of materials ranging from traditional marble, granite and timber co local cast iron headstones and grave surrounds. Probably the most impressive monument is that for Percival Brookfield, MLA and socialist, who was shot in March 1921.

Continue along Rakow Street

105. Former Freiberg Hotel – 1899

This single storey masonry building was erected as the Freiberg Arms Hotel in 1899 with James Pilcher as the licensee. It was renamed the West End Hotel in 1918 due to anti-German sentiment and was delicensed in 1924. The building is intact and the verandah has been reconstructed.

106. Burke Ward School – 1897

Burke Ward (Railwaytown) was the last ward to get a public school after Central (1886), South (1889) and North Broken Hill (1889). The school was formed in 1895 and initially operated in temporary buildings. The original building was erected by Isaac Sumsion in 1897 and an additional wing was added in 1899. An infant’s school was added in about 1910.

Continue along Rakow Street and turn left into Galena Street, then first left into Morgan Street

107. Ambush Site

This site was the location of the only hostilities on Australian soil during World War I. Nearby, on New Years Day 1915, a picnic train off 200 travellers in open trucks bound for Silverton was fired upon by two Turkish sympathisers. Soon after the attack, the train was shunted to safety back to Broken Hill. The attackers retreated to the nearby hills as they headed towards the Afghan camel camps on the outskirts of Broken Hill. They eventually took refuge at White Rocks (Trail Number 33, earlier on this trail), approximately 3 kilometres from here, where they were killed in a three-hour gun battle with police and the volunteer rifles. The attackers killed four and wounded seven.

Return to Rakow Street and then turn second left into Gypsum Street, travel to Pell Street

108. St Marys Catholic Church – 1922

The original church and school was erected on this site in 1896. The foundation stone of the present stone church was laid in 1922 by Rev. Mannix, Archbishop of Melbourne. The church was opened by Bishop Hayden in 1924.

109. Railwaytown Baptist Church – 1913

A Baptist church was erected at Railwaytown in 1910. The present concrete brick structure was opened by Dr Melville Birks in 1913.

110. Salvation Army Hall – 1906

This timber and iron building was erected as a meeting hall by the Salvation Army and opened by Mayor Ivey in 1906. It replaced an earlier 1892 hall.

Turn left into Mercury Street

111. Former Railwaytown Post Office – 1900

This brick post office and residence was erected in 1900. The Foundation stone was laid by the Minister of Works, Hon. W E. O’Sullivan.

112. Gasworks Hotel – 1891

This hotel, erected in 1891 with George Simpson as the first licensee, was named after nearby gasworks which established in 1889. It included a post office and barber’s shop. The former transferred to a new building across the road in 1900.

Turn right, travel two blocks, turn right into Rowe Street

113. St Philips Anglican Church – 1903

The foundation stone for the Anglican Church in Railwaytown was laid by Rev. Anderson in 1903.

Travel down to Wills Street, turn left

114. South Australian Hotel – 1888

This was opened in 1888 with Owen McClory as first Licensee.

Continue along Wills Street

115. Railway Residences – c1890

This row of four houses was erected about 1890 by the Silverton Tramway Company as staff residences. House No. 1 (northernmost) was occupied by the general manager of the Company. At the rear, on the site now occupied by Westside Plaza, were the railway goods sheds and workshops.

116. Tramway Residence – c1902

The Federation style red brick residence was erected for the officer-in-charge of the Government-operated street tramway system. The system commenced in 1902 and ceased in 1926 due to competition from motor vehicles. At its peak, the tramway had a staff of 60, with 14 engines and 36 carriages operating at half-hourly intervals. Nearby was a large shed for the engines and carriages.

Look left across Galena Street

117. Rising Sun Hotel – 1888

This was erected for J. Crossing. The first licensee was John Hare. It was the headquarters of the Silverton Tramways Union.

Turn into the southern end of Galena Street and go to the end

118. Block 10 Lookout

This lookout provides an excellent panoramic view of the southern part of the line of lode, particularly the old Zin and NBHC mines and the current Perilya operation. This hill is so named because it was the site of the Black 10 Mine’s concentration mill which was erected in 1903 and connected to the mine by an aerial ropeway. Evidence of the mill, which operated until 1923, still survives. The hill is also the location of four reservoirs which contribute to the water supply system.